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约翰卫斯理讲道集#58篇 论预定

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发表于 2016-9-16 18:05:21 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
THE SERMONS OF JOHN WESLEY - SERMON 58
约翰卫斯理讲道集#58篇

ON PREDESTINATION
论预定


"Whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son: -- Whom he did predestinate, them he also called. And whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified." Romans 8:29, 30.
因为他预先所知道的人,就预先定下效法他儿子的模样,使他儿子在许多弟兄中作长子。预先所定下的人又召他们来;所召来的人又称他们为义;所称为义的人又叫他们得荣耀。
罗马8:29-30

Our beloved brother Paul," says St. Peter, "according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you; as also in all his Epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other Scriptures, unto their own destruction." (2 Peter 3:15, 16)
并且要以我主长久忍耐为得救的因由,就如我们所亲爱的兄弟保罗,照著所赐给他的智慧写了信给你们。他一切的信上也都是讲论这事。信中有些难明白的,那无学问、不坚固的人强解,如强解别的经书一样,就自取沉沦。 彼得后书3:15-16

2. It is not improbable, that among those things spoken by St. Paul, which are hard to be understood, the Apostle Peter might place what he speaks on this subject in the eighth and ninth chapters of his epistle to the Romans. And it is certain not only the unlearned, but many of the most learned men in the world, and not the "unstable" only, but many who seemed to be well established in the truths of the gospel, have for several centuries, "wrested" these passages "to their own destruction."
保罗所说的那些事情不可能是艰涩难懂的,使徒彼得(根据原文翻译,应为保罗)可能将他所论到这个题目的内容放在他的罗马书的第8和第9章。许多世纪以来,不是那些没有学识的,而是那些这个世界中的饱学之士,不是那些‘信仰不坚定的’,而是那些在福音真理上具有坚实基础的人,在这些经文上“摔跤”,“知道他们自己的灭亡”。

3. "Hard to be understood" we may well allow them to be, when we consider how men of the strongest understanding, improved by all the advantages of education, have continually differed in judgment concerning them. And this very consideration, that there is so wide a difference upon the head between men of the greatest learning, sense, and piety, one might imagine would make all who now speak upon the subject exceedingly wary and self-diffident. But I know not how it is, that just the reverse is observed in every part of the Christian world. No writers upon earth appear more positive than those who write on this difficult subject. Nay, the same men, who, writing upon any other subject, are remarkably modest and humble, on this alone lay aside all self-distrust, and speak ex cathedraa infallible.
当我们思考具有最强理解能力的,并被各种教育所武装的人,如何不断的对那些经文产生不同的见解,明显的,乃是我们自己让那些经文成为“难以理解的”。这种思考的模式造成了那些最有学识的,理性的,并敬虔的人间产生完全不同的看法,某个人的幻想可能造成所有谈论这个题目的人变成极度的神经紧张并缺乏自信。但是我不知道为什么在基督教世界的各个角落都能观察到那种是非颠倒的情况。哎!那同一位人士,在撰写其他题目的时候,是那么的温和与谦卑,唯有在这个题目上撇弃了所有对自我的不信任,以倨傲唯我独尊的方式论述这个题目。

This is peculiarly observable of almost all those who assert the absolute decrees. But surely it is possible to avoid this: Whatever we propose, may be proposed with modesty, and with deference to those wise and good men who are of a contrary opinion; and the rather, because so much has been said already, on every part of the question, so many volumes have been written, that it is scarcely possible to say anything which has not been said before. All I would offer at present, not to the lovers of contention, but to men of piety and candour, are a few short hints, which perhaps may cast some light on the text above recited.
这个现象在绝大多数坚称神绝对法令的人身上特别容易被观察到。但是,我们不能回避这个问题:不论我们怎么看,我们可能温和的提出与那些聪慧并良善人士不同的看法;然而,针对问题的每一个部分,已经说过了那么多,也有那么多写好的材料,我们几乎无法提出以前未曾提出的新看法。我现在并不向对那些好争辩者,而是对于那些敬虔并坦率正直的听众,提出一些简要的线索,或许能够为前面我们背诵的经文,提出某种的亮光。

4. The more frequently and carefully I have considered it, the more I have been inclined to think that the apostle is not here (as many have supposed) describing a chain of causes and effects; (this does not seem to have entered into his heart;) but simply showing the method in which God works; the order in which the several branches of salvation constantly follow each other. And this, I apprehend, will be clear to any serious and impartial inquirer, surveying the work of God either forward or backward; either from the beginning to the end, or from the end to the beginning.
我越常并越仔细的考虑这个问题,我就越认为使徒在此并不是(如同许多人所认为的)描述一个因果关系;(这种观念看起来不可能进入他的心中;)只不过要表明神工作的方式;好几种不同的就是方式不断地彼此互动。并且,我认为,对于许多认真并公正的寻求者而言,不论他们是从前亦或是从后,从始至终亦或是从终至始探索神的工作,这都是明确的。

5. And, First, let us look forward on the whole work of God in the salvation of man; considering it from the beginning, the first point, till it terminates in glory. The first point is, the foreknowledge of God. God foreknew those in every nation those who would believe, from the beginning of the world to the consummation of all things. but, in order to throw light upon this dark question, it should be well observed, that when we speak of God's foreknowledge, we do not speak according to the nature of things, but after the manner of men. For, if we speak properly, there is no such thing as either foreknowledge or afterknowledge in God. All time, or rather all eternity, (for the children of men,) being present to him at once, he does not know one thing in one point of view from everlasting to everlasting. As all time, with everything that exists therein, is present with him at once, so he sees at once, whatever was is, or will be, to the end of time. But observe: We must not think they are because he knows them. No: he knows them because they are. Just as I (if one may be allowed to compare the things of men with the deep things of God) now know the sun shines: Yet the sun does not shine because I know it, but I know it because he shines. My knowledge supposes the sun to shine; but does not in anywise cause it. In like manner, God knows that man sins; for he knows all things: Yet we do not sin because he knows it, but he knows it because we sin; and his knowledge supposes our sin, but does not in anywise cause it. In a word, God, looking on all ages, from the creation to the consummation, as a moment, and seeing at once whatever is in the hearts of all the children of men, knows every one that does or does not believe, in every age or nation. Yet what he knows, whether faith or unbelief, is in no wise caused by his knowledge. Men are as free in believing or not believing as if he did not know it at all.
让我们首先看看神在人类救赎中的整个工作;从头开始一直考量到其在荣耀中的终结。第一个点是,神的预知,神预知那些在万民中,从创造世界的开始直到世界万有的结束间,将会相信祂的人,然而为了照明这个昏暗的问题,我们必须看见,就是当我们论及神的预知的时候,我们不是根据事物的本质,而是根据人的行为方式。因为,若我们的论述是正确的,就不会有所谓神的预知或后知了。在永恒中,(因着人类)一次性的被献给祂,祂就不知道从永远到永远的某个时间点上发生的事。因为没一样存有的事物乃是一次性的被成仙给他,所以祂也是以整体的方式来看它们直到末日的所是,和将会成为的景况。然而要注意:我们不能认为它们乃是因为祂的知道而有的。不!乃是因为它们的所是,祂认识它们。就好像我(如果有人被允许比较人的事与神深奥的事)如今知道太阳在发光:然而太阳并不是因为我知道而发光的,乃是因为它发光而我知道它。同样的,神知道人会犯罪;因为祂认识万有:然而,我们不是因为祂认识我们而不犯罪,而是因为因为我们犯罪,他认识我们;祂的认知证明了我们的罪,但是不会促发我们犯罪。总而言之,神看顾从创世到世代终了间的所有时代,视其为一刹那,并以整体性的方式审视所有人类的内心,也知道在每一个年代并民族中每一个人的信或不信。然而,祂知道的信或不信一点也不是基于祂的认知。人自有的相信或不相信,就好像祂完全不知道一样。

6. Indeed, if man were not free, he could not be accountable either for his thoughts, word, or actions. If he were not free, he would not be capable either of reward or punishment; he would be incapable either of virtue or vice, of being either morally good or bad. If he had no more freedom than the sun, the moon, or the stars, he would be no more accountable than them. On supposition that he had no more freedom than them, the stones of the earth would be as capable of reward, and as liable to punishment, as man: One would be as accountable as the other. Yea, and it would be as absurd to ascribe either virtue or vice to him as to ascribe it to the stock of a tree.
确实,若人不是自由的,他就不能为他的思想,言语或行为负责。如果他不是自有的,他就不能得到奖赏或惩治;他也不能成为有道德的,或无道德的,他的道德不能成为良善的,或邪恶的。但若他的自由还比不上太阳,月亮甚至星星,他也不能比他们负更大的责任。有些人猜测他的自由还比不上它们,地球上的石头比他还配得奖赏,也比人更当受到惩治:有人会比另一个人负更大的责任。啊!把道德的良善或邪恶归给他,就像把道德的良善或邪恶归给一颗树一样的荒谬无稽。

7. But to proceed: "Whom he did foreknow, them he did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son." This is the Second step: (To speak after the manner of men: For in fact, there is nothing before or after in God In other words, God decrees, from everlasting to everlasting, that all who believe in the Son of his love, shall be conformed to his image; shall be saved from all inward and outward sin, into all inward and outward holiness. Accordingly, it is a plain undeniable fact all who truly believe in the name of the Son of God do now "receive the end of their faith, the salvation of their souls;" and this in virtue of the unchangeable, irreversible, irresistible decree of God, -- "He that believeth shall be saved;" "he that believeth not, shall be damned."
但是,当我们继续读到:“祂所预知的,祂就预定模成神儿子的形像。”这是第二部:(这乃是根据人类的方式讲说:因为事实上,对神而言没有先后顺序:)换句话说,神从永远到永远就命令凡相信祂爱子的就会被模成祂的形像;也当被从内在和外在的罪中拯救出来,进入内在和外在的圣洁中。有鉴于此,我们根本无法否定一个事实,就是凡相信神儿子名字的人如今都‘领受了他们信心的结果,就是他们魂的结束;’这乃是在神不可改变,不可逆转,不可抗拒之命令的价值之中,--“凡相信的就必得救;”“凡不相信的,就必灭亡。”

8. "Whom he did predestinate, them he also called." This is the Third step: (Still remembering that we speak after the manner of men To express it a little more largely: According to his fixed decree, that believers shall be saved, those whom he foreknows as such, he calls both outwardly and inwardly, -- outwardly by the word of his grace, and inwardly by his Spirit. This inward application of his word to the heart, seems to be what some term "effectual calling:" And it implies, the calling them children of God; the accepting them "in the Beloved;" the justifying them "freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ."
“凡祂预定的,祂就呼召。”这是第三步:(请仍然记得,就是我们乃是根据人的方法论述:)若我们从一个更大的范围表达这个观念:根据祂的定旨,所有的信徒都当被拯救,就是那些祂所预知的,祂同时称这是内在的和外在的,——内在的乃是因着祂恩典的话,外在的乃是因着祂的灵。祂的话从内在的方面被用用到人心,看起来就是所谓的“有效的呼召(effectual calling)”:这也意味着,呼召他们成为神的儿女;并“在爱子中”接纳他们;“白白的因着祂的恩典,透过在耶稣基督里的救赎”称义他们。

9. "Whom he called, them he justified." This is the Fourth step. It is generally allowed that the word "justified" here is taken in a peculiar sense; that it means he made them just or righteous. He executed his decree, "conforming them to the image of his Son;" or, as we usually speak, sanctified them.
“祂所呼召的,祂就称义”。这是第四步。一般来说,都允许此处“称义(justified)”这个字被赋予特殊的含义;就是,它意表祂使得他们成为公义或正直的。祂执行祂自己的命令,“将他们模成祂儿子的形像;”或,如同我们常说的,圣别他们。

10. It remains, "whom he justified, them he also glorified." This is the Last step. Having made them "meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light," he gives them "the kingdom which was prepared for them before the world began." This is the order wherein, "according to the counsel of his will," the plan he has laid down from eternity, he saves those whom he foreknew; the true believers in every place and generation.
经文继续说到,“他所称义的,他也荣化他们。”这是最后一步。使他们成为“在光中圣徒之继承遗产的有分者(meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light)”,赐给他们“在世界开始前就为他们所预表的国度”。这个顺序乃是“根据祂意志的决议,”祂在永远中就已经制定的计划,祂要拯救那些祂所预知的;就是在各处并各个世代中的真信徒。

11. The same great work of salvation by faith, according to the foreknowledge and decree of God, may appear in a still clearer light, if we view it backward, from the end to the beginning. Suppose then you stood with the "great multitude which no man can number, out of every nation, and tongue, and kindred, and people," who "give praise unto Him that stretch upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever;" you would not find one among them all that were entered into glory, who was not a witness of that great truth, "Without holiness no man shall see the Lord;" "not one of all that innumerable company who was not sanctified before he was glorified. By holiness he was prepared for glory; according to the invariable will of the Lord, that the crown, purchased by the blood of his son, should be given to none but those who are renewed by his Spirit. He is become "the author of eternal salvation" only "to them that obey him;" "that obey him inwardly and outwardly; that are holy in heart, and holy in all manner of conversation.
根据神的预知并命令,同一个伟大的,借由信心的救赎工作,当我们回头从终点往开始回顾的时候,会显得更为清楚。假设你与“一大群数算不过来的,从各个民族,各个语言的百姓”站在一起,他们“赞美祂的声音达到宝座,并达到羔羊,直到永永远远,”你在那些进入荣耀中的人中,绝对找不到一个不是那个伟大真理的见证人,“人若不圣洁就不能见主;”“那数算不尽的人群众没有一个在被荣化前不是已经被圣别的。因为祂乃是基于圣洁而为人预备荣耀;根据神永恒不变的旨意,用祂儿子宝血所买来的冠冕只能赐个那些被祂的灵所更新的人,”以至于祂成为仅仅“顺服祂者”之“永远救赎的作者”;“他们不论是从外在亦或是从内在顺从祂;以至于他们的心是圣洁的,并在所有交谈的方法中都是圣洁的。”

12. And could you take view of all those upon earth who are now sanctified, you would find no one of these had been sanctified till after he was called. He was first called, not only with an outward call, by the word and the messengers of God, but likewise with an inward call, by his Spirit applying his word, enabling him to believe in the only-begotten Son of God, and bearing testimony with his spirit that he was a child of God. And it was by this very means they were all sanctified. It was by a sense of the love of God shed abroad in his heart, that everyone of them was enabled to love God. Loving God, he loved his neighbor as himself, and had power to walk in all his commandments blameless. This is a rule which admits of no exception. God calls a sinner his own, that is, justifies him, before he sanctifies. And by this very thing, the consciousness of his favour, he works in him that grateful, filial affection, from which spring every good temper, and word, and work.
若你观察所有那些如今在地上已经被圣别的人,你会发现没有任何一个人直到被呼召后才会成为圣洁。他先被呼召,这个呼召不仅仅是外在透过神的话并信使的呼召,而是类似一种内在的呼召,透过祂的灵将他的话应用在信徒身上,使得信徒能够相信神独生的儿子,并与祂的灵一同背负他乃是神儿女的见证。他们也是借着这个方式被圣别。也是从神的爱洒落在他的心上的这个意义上,他们每一个人都能够爱神。爱神,他爱邻舍如己,也具有以无可指责的方式完成神所有诫命的能力。这乃是一个放诸天下皆准的定律。神呼召罪人,称义他,然后圣别他。透过祂所喜悦之人的良心,祂在他身上产生感恩,如同子女般的感情,从此涌出各种良善的性情,言语和工作。

13. And who are they that are thus called of God, but those whom he had before predestinated, or decreed, to "conform to the image of his Son" This decree (still speaking after the manner of men) precedes every man's calling: Every believer was predestinated before he was called. For God calls none, but "according to the counsel of his will," according to this liuren, or plan of acting, which he had laid down before the foundation of the world.
那些称祂为神,并为祂预先预定的人,将被‘模成祂儿子的形像。’这个命令(仍然是根据人的方式论述)超越一切人类的呼召:每一个信徒都是在他被呼召前就被预定。因为神乃是‘根据祂意志的决议’,根据这个行动计划,就是祂在创立世界前就立下的计划,就不会呼召任何人。

14. Once more: As all that are called were predestinated, so all whom God has predestinated he foreknew. He knew, he saw them as believers, and as such predestinated them to salvation, according to his eternal decree, "He that believeth shall be saved." Thus we see the whole process of the work of God, from the end to the beginning. Who are glorified None but those who were first sanctified. Who are sanctified None but those who were first justified. Who are justified None but those who were first predestinated Who are predestinated None but those whom God foreknew as believers. Thus the purpose and word of God stand unshaken as the pillars of heaven: -- "He that believeth shall be saved; he that believeth not shall be damned." And thus God is clear from the blood of all men; since whoever perishes, perishes by his own act and deed. "They will not come unto me," says the Savior of men; and "there is no salvation in any other." They "will not believe;" and there is no other way either to present or eternal salvation. Therefore, their blood is upon their own head; and God is still "justified in his saying" that he "willeth all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of his truth."
再者:就像所有被呼召的人都是预定的意义,所有神预定的都是祂所预知的。祂知道,祂也看见那些信徒,并根据祂永远的命令,预定他们的救赎,‘凡相信的就必得救’。因此,我们看见神工作的整个过程,从开始至结束。唯有祂所先称义的,祂圣别他们。唯有那些被预定的,才会被称义。唯有神预先看见为信徒的,才会被预定。因此,神的旨意和护就如同天的柱子一样永不动摇:--“凡相信的就必得救;凡相信的必不至灭亡。”因此,神与流人血的事无关;因为凡灭玩的人,都是因自己的行为灭亡。“他们不来到我这边”,人类的救主说;并“对其他的人也无救赎。”“他们不相信”,就不可能有今日或为了的救恩。因此,他们的血流在他们的头上;神的话语仍然“是公义的”以至于祂“希望万人的就,并完全认识祂的真理。”

15. The sum of all is this: the almighty, all-wise God sees and knows, from everlasting to everlasting, all that is, that was, and that is to come, through one eternal now. With him nothing is either past or future, but all things equally present. He has, therefore, if we speak according to the truth of things, no foreknowledge, no afterknowledge. This would be ill consistent with the Apostle's words, "With him is no variableness or shadow of turning;" and with the account he gives of himself by the Prophet, "I the Lord change not." Yet when he speaks to us, knowing whereof we are made, knowing the scantiness of our understanding, he lets himself down to our capacity, and speaks of himself after the manner of men. Thus, in condescension to our weakness, he speaks of his own purpose, counsel, plan, foreknowledge. Not that God has any need of counsel, of purpose, or of planning his work beforehand. Far be it from us to impute these to the Most High; to measure him by ourselves! It is merely in compassion to us that he speaks thus of himself, as foreknowing the things in heaven or earth, and as predestinating or fore-ordaining them. But can we possibly imagine that these expressions are to be taken literally To one who was so gross in his conceptions might he not say, "Thinkest thou I am such an one as thyself" Not so: As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than thy ways. I know, decree, work, in such a manner as it is not possible for thee to conceive: But to give thee some faint, glimmering knowledge of my ways, I use the language of men, and suit myself to thy apprehensions in this thy infant state of existence.
总结:全能和全智的神从永远到到永远看见并知道所有的一切,过去的一切,并将发生的一切。在他里面没有过去或未来,所有的一切都是现在的。因此,若我们根据事物真实的情况论述,他就没有预知或后知。这都是与使徒的话相悖逆的,“在祂里面没有改变,也没有转动的影子;”祂透过先知如此描述自己,“我的主从不改变。”然而,当祂论到我们的时候,因为知道我们是被造的,也知道我们缺乏当有的理解力,祂亲自降低到我们的程度,并用人的方式说话。在俯就我们的软弱中,祂论到祂的旨意,会议,计划并预知。并不是神需要预先为祂的工作预备一个会议,一个旨意,或一个计划。我们根本不能把这些事物归咎于至高的神;用我们的方式去衡量祂!祂那样论述自己乃是对于我们的怜悯,就是预见在天上或在地上的事物,并预定人类。但是,我们或许可以相信那些说法都当以字面的方式被领会。对于一位根本没有什么概念的人而言,祂可能不会说出,“你想想,我就是我所示的那位。”也不会说:就如同天比地高一样,我的道路也比你的道路高。我知道,你无法以那种方式来理解我的命令,和工作:但是我可以给你一些关于我的道路朦胧,模糊的知识,我使用了人类的预言,并将自己迁就于你那个尚处于婴儿时期的理解能力。

16. What is it, then, that we learn from this whole account It is this, and no more: -- (1.) God knows all believers; (2) wills that they should be saved from sin; (3) to that end, justifies them, (4) sanctifies and (5) takes them to glory.
那么,我们能够从这整个事件中学习到什么呢?不外乎:--(1)神知道所有的信徒;(2)祂愿意将他们从罪中拯救出来;(3)至终,称义他们;(4)圣别他们;(5)并将他们带入荣耀中。

O that men would praise the Lord for this his goodness; and that they would be content with this plain account of it, and not endeavour to wade into those mysteries which are too deep for angels to fathom!
哦!人应当为了神向他所行的良善赞美主;他们当满足于这样的待遇,并别胆敢跨入连天使都无法领会的奥秘中!



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